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Saturday, 5 December 2015

PHANTOM DEVICE


PHANTOM DEVICE
Haptic as an adjective relating to the tactile sense which is derived from the Greek word haptesthai, which means to touch. A Haptic device involves physical contact between the user and the Computer. This is done through an input/output device that senses the body movements such as a joystick, data glove or bodysuit. Haptics provide the user with the sense of touch on an virtual object. This is done by synchronizing cursor and the haptic end effector movement. A robotic arm is moved in real space which is controlled by a series of motors.

To achieve the sensation which is kinesthetic haptic force must be calculated every millisecond and submitted to the haptic device. When the body parts interact with the haptic device a force is returned which is termed as force feedback depending upon which action will be performed by the system through the haptic device. Tactile feedback is used to interact with the nerve endings to feel heat, pressure and texture. Haptic interfaces are devices that enable manual interactions with virtual environments or teleoperated remote systems. They are employed for tasks that are usually performed using hands in the real world, such as manual exploration and manipulation of objects. In general, they receive motor action commands fromthe human user and display appropriate tactual images to the user. Such haptic interactions may or may not be accompanied the stimulation of other sensory modalities such as vision and audition.

Haptics, is the technology used in PHANTOM device(personal haptic interface omni device). The phantom haptic interface is a creation of J.Kenneth Salisbury and Thomas ,Massachusetts Institute of Technology(MIT).The SensAble Technologies produce the phantom device commercially



               HISTORY
The PHANTOM is a convenient desktop device which allows users to reach beyond the “Looking–Glass” of existing computer monitors, and actually touch virtual objects represented within the computer. Users connect to the mechanism by simply inserting their finger into a thimble. PHANTOM device is a robot arm that is attached to a computer and used as a pointer in three dimensions, Like a mouse is used as a pointer in two dimensions.It just like closing eyes,holding a pen and touching everything in office.The device has enabled users to interact with and feel a wide variety of virtual objects and will be used for control of remote manipulators.

New users of the high technology haptic interfaces are very surprised and intrigued with the reality oftheir experiences. A blind user was fooled when the person was able to touch a virtual object. The person examined the virtual objects surface with finger and was not surprised at all until reminded that there was no physical object present. This startled the person because the person jumped and started reaching out for the nonexistent object with his other hand. Another example that shows the reality of the experience is the demonstration of a medical procedure. A needle biopsy is a procedure in which a doctor inserts a long needle into the brain. When this procedure has been demonstrated using a haptic device, many doctors’ reactions are that the needle seems a bit dull.This means the doctors are more concerned with the procedure than they are concerned that it is only a simulation. The reality of the simulation is also shown when there is a sudden removal of a certain haptic device simulation. It is explained as being similar to when a person who is going to sit down is unaware that the chair has been pulled out. Haptic interactions give the user the illusion that they are dealing with real, physical objects. Interactions to this extent of reality in this new field are motivation for this topic.



TECHNOLOGY FOCUS
The PHANTOM is a convenient desktop device which provides a force-reflecting interface between a human user and a computer. Users connect to the mechanism by simply inserting their index finger into a thimble. The PHANTOM tracks the motion of the user’s fingertip and can actively exert an external force on the finger, creating compelling illusions of interaction with solid physical objects. A stylus can be substituted for the thimble and users can feel the tip of the stylus touch virtual surfaces.

The phantom allows the user to interact with a variety of virtual objects. The device exerts an external force on the computer user with force feedback that gives the illusion of interaction with solid physical objects. Figure shows a typical phantom device.The phantom is an electromechanical desktop device that connects to the computer’s input/output port. The user inserts a finger into a thimble or holds a stylus supported by a mechanical arm. The thimble or stylus will then track the motions and position of the user’s Fingertip while applying forces on the user.
                                                                   

            Phantom Device


The phantom system is controlled by three direct current(DC) motors that have sensors and encoders attached to them. The number of motors corresponds to the number of degrees of freedom a particular phantom system has, although most systems produced have 3 motors. The encoders track the users motion or position along the x, y and z coordinates and the motors track the forces exerted on the user along the x, y and z axis. From the motors there is a cable that connects to an aluminum linkagewhich connects to a passive gimbal which attaches to the thimble or stylus. A gimbal is a device that permits a body freedom of motion in any direction or suspends it so that it will remain level at all times. As explained later in the paper, because the three degrees of freedom meet at one contact point, no torque is measured, only force applied to the point. Friction and inertia must be constant to limit distractions of the user. Also, the haptics system must be able to analyze and sense the forces applied by the user and then deliver the sensation back in real time.

The phantom was designed under a few important considerations, first among them being:In the physical world the person impose forces on himself whenever touch anything. These forces and the position and motion of hand and arms are transmitted to the brain as kinesthetic information. This information along with cutaneous (touch) senses, force and motor capabilities are what allow us to touch and manipulate objects and relate them to the space around us. The phantom haptics system must also be able to interpret force and motion information. It must be able to determine how objects move when forces are applied and also determine the geometry of the object (texture and friction of the surface of the object). Events tracking the change in position or motion of the probe, collision detection between the object and another object or the probe, explained later in the paper, are all important.

The phantom was designed with three degrees of freedom because very little torque (twisting-rotating) is involved with either the thimble or the stylus. Degrees of freedom are the directions the user can move in. For a user to touch all sides of a virtual 3-dimensional object the haptics system needs 3 degrees of freedom.
Another 3 degrees of freedom are needed if a user wants to rotate the object freely.Because the first Phantom haptic interface that was created uses only 3 degrees of freedom, it allows the system to model those 3 degrees of freedom as a point contact in the virtual environment. This simplifies programming because with a point contact there is little torque, therefore it is less complex. These considerations were combined into three main criteria to attain a balanced, effective system.

FREE SPACE MUST FEEL FREE: There cannot be any external forces present and there must be low inertia and little friction. The Phantom system.s friction is measured at less than .1 Newton (Nt). For inertia a user feels no more than 100 grams of mass and the unbalanced weight is less than .2 Nt at all points in the workspace.

VIRTUAL OBJECTS MUST FEEL STIFF: The second criterion is that the virtual objects must be perceived as stiff. The virtual object or surface can only be as stiff as the control algorithm allows it to be. The maximum stiffness is about 35 Nt/cm. Although according to Massie and Salisbury, most users will be convinced of a stiff surface at 20 Nt/cm. Sound is also a factor in the stiffness of virtual objects. If a user touches a hard surface and they hear a knock; the user is likely to accept the surface as stiff.

VIRTUAL CONSTRAINTS MUST NOT BE EASILY SATURATED: The third criterion is that virtual walls must be solid or immovable to the user. This means that the force exerted by the user must be counteracted by the phantom system. The maximum force the system can exert is only 10 Nt of force. However, it has been shown that during precise manipulation a user exerts 10 Nt or less of force, but on average a user only exerts 1 Nt of force, while maximum continuous force capability for the phantom is 1.5 Nt . Therefore, the system is capable of responding to regular manipulation activities.
The phantom needs to match the human sensory, motor and cognitive systems. The system does not have to completely replicate a normal human being but the touch sense is harder to replicate than vision or hearing.

A good example is that to match human vision only 30 to 60 frames per second are needed for the viewer to believe constant motion. Human touch is far more sensitive and therefore the motors. information must be updated 1, 000 times per second to provide a continuous feeling.

BLOCK DIAGRAM


Block Diagram





 DESCRIPTION
Basically a haptic system consist of two parts namely the human partand the machine part.In the figure shown above, the human part (left) senses and controls the position of the hand, while the machine part(right) exerts forces from the hand to simulate contact with a virtual object.Also both the systems will be provided with necessary sensors, processors and actuators.In the case of the human system, nerve receptors perform sensing, brain performs processing and muscles perform actuation of the motion performed by the hand.While in the case of the machine system, the above mentioned functions are performed by the encoders, computer and motors respectively.

 SPECIFICATION

GEOMAGIC TOUCH HAPTIC DEVICE


Force feedback workspace



~6.4 W x 4.8 H x 2.8 D in > 160 W x 120 H x 70D mm
Footprint (Physical area device base occupies on desk)



6 5/8 W x 8 D in ~168 W x 203 D mm
Weight (device only)


3 lbs 15 oz
Range of motion

Hand movement pivoting at wrist
Nominal position resolution


> 450 dpi ~ 0.055 mm
Backdrive friction


< 1 oz (0.26 N)
Maximum exertable force at nominal (orthogonal arms) position

0.75 lbf (3.3 N)
Continuous exertable force (24 hrs)

0.2 lbf (0.88 N)
Stiffness

X axis > 7.3 lbs / in (1.26 N / mm)
Y axis > 13.4 lbs / in (2.31 N / mm)
Z axis > 5.9 lbs / in (1.02 N / mm)
Inertia (apparent mass at tip)

~0.101 lbm (45 g)
Force feedback

x, y, z
Position sensing [Stylus gimbal]

x, y, z (digital encoders)
[Pitch, roll, yaw (± 5% linearity potentiometers)
Interface

IEEE-1394 FireWire port: 6-pin to 6-pin
Supported platforms

Intel or AMD-based PCs
OpenHapticsToolkit compatibility

Yes
Applications

Selected Types of Haptic Research, FreeFormModelingsystem, ClayTools system


 Touch Device




GEOMAGIC TOUCH X HAPTIC DEVICE


Force feedback workspace

~6.4 W x 4.8 H x 4.8 D in > 160 W x 120 H x120 D mm
Footprint (Physical area device
Base occupies on desk)
5 5/8 W x 7 1/4 D in ~143 W x 184 mm
Weight (device only)
6 lbs 5oz
Range of motion
Hand movement pivoting at wrist
Nominal position resolution
> 1100 dpi ~ 0.023 mm
Backdrive friction
< 0.23 oz (0.06 N)
Maximum exertable force at
nominal (orthogonal arms) position

1.8 lbf (7.9 N)
Continuous exertable force (24hrs)
0.4 lbf (1.75 N)
Stiffness



X axis > 10.8 lbs / in (1.86 N / mm)
Y axis > 13.6 lbs / in (2.35 N / mm)
Z axis > 8.6 lbs / in (1.48 N / mm)
Inertia (apparent mass at tip)
~0.101 lbm (45 g)
Force feedback
x, y, z
Position sensing [Stylus gimbal]



x, y, z (digital encoders)
[Pitch, roll, yaw (± 3% linearity
potentiometers)
Interface
Parallel port and FireWire option*
Supported platforms
Intel or AMD-based PCs
OpenHapticsToolkit compatibility
Yes
Applications



Selected Types of HapticResearch,FreeFormModelingsystem,
ClayTools system


 Touch X




 PHANTOM PREMIUM HAPTIC DEVICES



Phantom Premium




Phantom Premium 6 DOFs



IMPLEMENTATION


GEOMAGIC TOUCH HAPTIC DEVICE


The Geomagic Touch (formerly Sensable Phantom Omni) is the industry’s most widely deployed professional haptic device. Used in research, 3D modeling, OEM applications and more, Touch allows users to freely sculpt 3D clay, enhance scientific or medical simulations, increase productivity with interactive training, and easily maneuver mechanical components to produce higher quality designs.
Touch is a motorized device that applies force feedback on the user’s hand, allowing them to feel virtual objects and producing true-to-life touch sensations as user manipulates on-screen 3D objects. Leading companies integrate the Geomagic Touch and haptics into their work to achieve compelling solutions using the realistic sense of touch. 
Touch can be used in diverse applications, including: simulation, training, skills assessment, rehearsal, virtual assembly, robotic control, collision detection, machine interface design, rehabilitation, mapping and dozens of other applications.
When used with OpenHaptics toolkit, Touch allows developers to rapidly design and deploy haptic programs, do mash-ups into existing applications, try out new ideas, and create haptically enabled products. Touch is also sold as a component of Geomagic Freeform and Geomagic Clay tools modeling systems.

Features

  • Portable design and compact footprint allow greater user flexibility
  • Supports a broad range of haptic applications with six-degree-of-freedom positional sensing and 3-degree-of-freedom force feedback
  • CE certified
  • Easy-to-use design with removable stylus and two integrated momentary stylus switches
  • Quick installation and FireWire port interface

GeomagicTouch Haptic Device


 GEOMAGIC TOUCH X HAPTIC DEVICE

The award-winning Geomagic Touch X (formerly Sensable Phantom Desktop) pushes haptic capabilities to the next level, providing more precise positioning input and high-fidelity force-feedback output. For 3D modeling and design, surgical training, virtual assembly and other procedures that require a higher degree of precision, Touch X is an easy-to-use, affordable option.
The Geomagic Touch X haptic devices allow users to feel 3D on-screen objects by applying force feedback on the user’s hand, and the Touch X delivers expanded true-to-life sensations with a more fluid feel and lower friction. Its durability, affordability and accuracy make the Touch X haptic device ideal for commercial, medical and research applications, especially when compactness and portability matter. 
Leading OEMs choose the Touch X and integrate it into their products, as its valuable in a number of interactive virtual environments, like surgical simulators and machine component visualization.
                                                                               
 Geomagic Touch X Haptic Device

Features

  • CE certified
  • Six-degree-of-freedom positional sensing
  • High-fidelity force feedback, stronger forces and lower friction produce a more realistic touch experience
  • Automatic workspace calibration
  • Compact footprint and portable design allow for flexible desktop operation
  • Single integrated momentary switch on the stylus allows for end-user customization and ease of use

PHANTOM PREMIUM HAPTIC DEVICES


The Geomagic Phantom Premium (formerly Sensable Phantom Premium) haptic devices fulfill the requirements of a vast range of research and commercial applications. These high-precision devices provide the largest workspaces and highest forces in the Phantom line while offering a broad range of force feedback workspaces, various ranges of motion and varying stiffness. Phantom Premium haptic devices also come in 6DOF models, which offer six degrees of freedom (3 translational, 3 torque) in output capabilities.


With ranges of motion approximating hand movement pivoting at the wrist, elbow or shoulder, the Phantom Premium can fulfill the requirements of manufacturing verification, machine component visualization, medical research and simulation, and an assortment of other haptically enabled 3D applications.
Three models make up the Phantom Premium line of haptic devices: Premium 1.0, Premium 1.5 and 1.5/HF, and Premium 3.0. While the models are designed with different ranges of motion and specifications, each one is constructed for maximum durability and simple PC connection via the parallel port (EPP) interface. See below for more information on the individual models. 
 PHANTOM PREMIUM 1.0


The Premium 1.0 haptic device provides a range of motion approximating hand movement pivoting at the wrist. This device includes a passive stylus and thimble gimbal and provides 3 degrees of freedom positional sensing and 3 degrees of freedom force feedback. An encoder stylus gimbal can be purchased separately, enabling the measurement of an additional 3 degrees of positional sensing (pitch, roll & yaw). The Premium 1.0 device connects to the PC via the parallel port (EPP) interface.

 Phantom Premium 1.0
 PHANTOM PREMIUM 1.5 & 1.5 HIGH FORCE


The Premium 1.5 haptic device provides a range of motion approximating lower arm movement pivoting at the elbow. This device includes a passive stylus and thimble gimbal and provides 3 degrees of freedom positional sensing and 3 degrees of freedom force-feedback. An encoder stylus gimbal can be purchased separately, enabling the measurement of pitch, roll & yaw.  A PHANTOM Premium 1.5 HF (High Force) device is also available, and includes a built-in gear box option that provides higher forces. The thimble attachment is currently not available.

Phantom Premium 1.5 & 1.5 HF
 PHANTOM PREMIUM 3.0


The Premium 3.0 haptic device provides a range of motion approximating full arm movement pivoting at the shoulder. This device includes either a finger sled or a handle gimbal (choice of one) and provides 3 degrees of freedom positional sensing and 3 degrees of freedom force feedback. An encoder stylus gimbal can be purchased separately, enabling the measurement of an additional 3 degrees of positional sensing (pitch, roll & yaw). The encoder-stylus, finger sled and handle gimbal arm assemblies may also be purchased separately and can be installed by the user. The Premium 3.0 device connects to the PC via the parallel port (EPP) interface.

 Phantom Premium 3.0


GEOMAGIC PHANTOM PREMIUM 6DOF


The premier haptic products in the Geomagic Phantomline, (formerly Sensable) Phantom Premium 6DOF haptic devices offer highly accurate 3D object manipulation and allow users to explore application areas that require force feedback in six degrees of freedom rather than three, such as virtual prototyping, maintenance path planning and molecular modeling.

In addition to force feedback along the x-, y- and z-axis, the Phantom Premium 6DOF haptic device simulates torque force feedback in three rotational degrees of freedom: yaw, pitch and roll. Incorporating six degrees of freedom, these motorized devices provide more complete touch-based feedback that allows users to feel collision and reaction torques on a part in a virtual assembly path or feel the rotational torques supported by a remote slave robot in a teleoperation environment.
The Phantom Premium 6DOF family of haptic devices is comprised of three models. The Phantom Premium 1.5/6DOF and 1.5HF/6DOF provide a range of motion approximating lower arm movement pivoting at the elbow. A larger haptic device, the Phantom Premium 3.0 6DOF provides a greater range of motion, approximating full arm movement pivoting at the shoulder.
Phantom Premium 6DOF devices can also be fitted with optional end effectors that provide pinch functionality, simulating a seventh degree of freedom, for application in medicine, manufacturing and more.


 PHANTOM PREMIUM 1.5 AND 1.5 HIGH FORCE 6DOF


The Phantom Premium 1.5/6DOF and 1.5HF/6DOF haptic devices provide a range of motion approximating lower arm movement pivoting at the elbow. These devices provide force feedback in three translational degrees of freedom as well as torque feedback in three rotational degrees of freedom in the yaw, pitch and roll directions. The Premium 1.5HF device includes a built-in gear box option that provides higher forces. The 1.5/6DOF and the 1.5HF/6DOF devices connect to the PC via the parallel port (EPP) interface.
The 1.5/6DOF and 1.5HF/6DOF devices now ship with chrome components. If using these devices with optical tracking equipment.


 Phantom Premium 1.5 & 1.5 HF 6DOF


 PHANTOM PREMIUM 3.0 6DOF


The 3.0/6DOF provides a range of motion approximating full arm movement pivoting at the shoulder. This device provides force feedback in three translational degrees of freedom as well as torque feedback in three rotational degrees of freedom in the yaw, pitch and roll directions. The 3.0/6DOF device connects to the PC via the parallel port (EPP) interface.
The 3.0/6DOF device now ships with chrome components. Using this device with optical tracking equipment.

Phantom Premium 3.0 6DOF

 7 DOF OPTION FOR OHANTOM 6DOF DEVICES


A new handle design for the PHANTOM 6 DOF family of haptic devices enables attaching interchangeable end effectors that provide pinch functionality -- 7 DOF positional sensing and 6 DOF haptic feedback. Take advantage of all the benefits of a full 6 DOF haptic controller plus the option to add two different pinch grips.



 7DOF


 GEOMAGIC CLAYTOOLS

The Geomagic Claytools modeling system delivers unparalleled modeling speed and creative expression, and it is ideal for sculptural modeling of complex, organic shapes for digital content creation and fine arts such as sculpture and portions of jewelry design. It is also used in fine arts and industrial design educational programs to teach sculptural 3D modeling. Geomagic Claytools files are compatible with Geomagic's manufacturing-oriented modeling systems: Freeform and Freeform Plus.

The Claytools system includes the Geomagic Touch haptic device, i.e., a true 3D interface with force feedback that enables you to use your sense of touch to create virtual clay models. This natural and direct way of working makes the Claytools system easy to learn, and users typically become productive within a few days.

 SCULPTURAL MODELING FOR FINEARTS, JEWELRY DESIGN & DIGITAL CONTENT CREATION
The GeomagicClaytools modeling system delivers unparalleled modeling speed and creative expression, and it is ideal for sculptural modeling of complex, organic shapes for digital content creation and fine arts such as sculpture and portions of jewelry design. It is also used in fine arts and industrial design educational programs to teach sculptural 3D modeling. GeomagicClaytools files are compatible with Geomagic's manufacturing-oriented modeling systems: Freeform and Freeform Plus.
The Claytools system includes the Geomagic Touch haptic device, i.e., a true 3D interface with force feedback that enables to use sense of touch to create virtual clay models. This natural and direct way of working makes the Claytools system easy to learn, and users typically become productive within a few days.
 Concept Design
Use GeomagicClaytools to quickly sculpt concept designs using "digital clay". Using a full set of tools to carve, sculpt and modify, will have the ability to explore ideas, unleashing creativity while increasing productivity.

 Concept Design
 Jewelery Design
Easily design and sculpt intricate objects such as jewelry and collectibles. Quickly form minute details in the designs that differentiate from the rest of the pack through infinite attention to detail. Easily output the data to a 3D printing system, and create a wax pattern for casting  unique designs.
                                                                               
 Jewelry Design






 Capture Imagination
Want to take imagination to the limit? GeomagicClaytools offers the flexibility to create digital sculptures as easily as would with real clay. Often used for game, entertainment and filmmaking, this software allows designers to push, pull, sculpt and detail easily ... and without a long learning curve.
                                                              
 Capture Imagination


 GEOMAGIC CLAYTOOLS FEATURES

  • Model in a faster, unconstrained, and more flexible way
  • Add organic detailing and texturing to jewelry designs
  • Produce highly detailed models for game characters, props, and scenery
  • Add sculptural details, handcrafted modifications, and embossedtextures to existing models
  • Create texture maps from high-res, detailed models to apply to optimized poly models for games, videos, and films
  • Gain the benefits of digital modeling - create multiple versions, duplicate handcrafted modifications, and create and use a library of parts
  • Output for Rapid Prototyping or casting
  • Expand existing design and modeling workflows
  • Use with 3ds Max, Maya, Rhino, and other design applications that support .stl and .obj I/O 



 CLAYTOOLS TEXTUREKLIN

  • Allows Texture baking at blazing fast speed.
  • Provides stunning visual content for real-time rendering and fast, high-detail, off-line rendering
  • Supports multiple map types (normal, height, color, and occlusion) for next-generation games, film, and design production pipelines
  • Large models - supports pieces each with over 20 million triangles
  • Streamlined - no need to decimate or export dense models to 3ds Max, Maya, and other animation packages
  • Quick iterations - maximize creativity and refine the final textured model without preprocessing steps

ADVANTAGES
 SIZE
The way that the phantom haptic interface has been designed gives it advantages over other haptic devices. Its size resembles a small desk lamp and its workspace is about the size of a mouse pad. The size gives the user the ability to work with the device on their desktop while still having enough workspace to use it freely.

 FIDELITY
Exoskeletal devices do not allow this much freedom of motion while at the same time having high fidelity. For example,gloves provide more degrees of freedom but with less precision. The system operates on point contact and has much higher fidelity; therefore it can be used for highly technological applications.


 RANGE OF APPLICATIONS
The phantom setup allows the stylus or thimble to function as surgical tools, paint brushes or other tools depending on the application. Other devices do not allow for such wide ranges of use.

 COST
Phantom is a low cost device.so it is widely used when compared to other haptic devices.










REAL WORLD APPLICATIONS
One of the greatest advantages of the Phantom hapticinterface is that it has a wide variety of applications

 MEDICAL FIELD

One of the first broad applications is in training people to perform real world tasks. In the field of medicine, touch is an important sense. It has been one of the most researched topics in haptics. Medical students need to train in performing procedures usually done on live patients, gaining skill as time goes on. The phantom provides these students with the ability to train on surgical simulators. This reduces the training time of the students and allows them to train on more complex operations before actually operating. The simulation could be recorded and later observed for evaluation or skill level verifications on the procedure. The surgery can also be recorded so that the student can feel the doctor’s prerecorded procedure. The phantom is ideal for minimally invasive surgeries like laparoscopy and arthroscopy in which the doctors must insert long tools with cameras to view the operation. In these procedures there is no direct contact. The phantom’s setup, precision and high fidelity can greatly enhance the quality of these surgeries.

 3D MODELING
3D modeling or clay modeling gives users the ability to work with a virtual surface or ball made out of digital clay. Complex shapes can be created or manipulated. The difficulty of the interaction with the physical world and digital world has kept many designers working with the more familiar, real clay models. The first, major computer animation movie Toy Story began to change this, but still the designers modeled with clay before digitizing. The digitization process is very difficult due to possible errors. For this reason modelers want a new system. Industrial designers and modelers can benefit from the application because 3D modeling packages have many benefits over classic software for four main reasons. Touch providing feedback helps to position the object correctly in 3D space, it helps make the visualization clearer by letting the user feel the models, and assists in the communication of the physical properties of the model. The fourth reason is that force feedback lets users continuously manipulate the objects. The programs will then let thedesigners work with more creativity.

 ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR THE BLIND AND VISUALLY IMPAIRED

Feel maps that are displayed on the internet and also learn mathematics by tracing touchable mathematical course .most haptic systems still rely heavily on a combined visual/haptic interface

 MUSEUM DISPLAY

For 3D digitization of priceless artifacts and objects from their sculpture and decorative arts collections, making the images available via CD-ROM.

 ENTERTAINMENT
Haptics is used to enhance gaming experience.software also allows to program force feedback sensations to game controller button press."Submarines" is a PHANTOM variant of the well known battleship game

 HOLOGRAPHIC INTERACTION

The feedback allows the user to interact with a hologram and receive tactile response as if the holographic object were real .Ultrasound waves to create a phenomenon called acoustic radiation pressurewhich provides tactile feedback as users interact with the holographic object.
DRAWBACKS
There are certain problems and limitations present with haptic interfaces. Until recently, research has concentrated on the devices themselves. Now however, software developers are working to meet the needs of these haptic devices. For most haptic interfaces the software is included in the complete setup. Haptic models require much more computing power than computer graphics programs. Haptic options have not been designed into the software and it is nearly impossible to integrate haptic features into existing software packages. This makes it difficult because new software programs must be written.

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REFERENCES
[1] http://www.sensable.com/phantom/documents/documents/ASME94.pdf
[2] http://www.scribd.com/doc/32999510/Phantom
[3] http://sciencestage.com/d/1134205/phantom-haptic-interface-and.html
[4] http://www.sensable.com/haptic-phantom-desktop.htm
[5] http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/dow...1&type=pdf
[6] http://www.geomagic.com